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Among all the numerical methods in seismology, the finite-difference (FD) technique provides the best balance of accuracy and computational efficiency. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to FD and its applications to earthquake motion. Using a systematic tutorial approach, the book requires only undergraduate degree-level mathematics and provides a user-friendly explanation of the relevant theory. It explains FD schemes for solving wave equations and elastodynamic equations of motion in heterogeneous media, and provides an introduction to the rheology of viscoelastic and elastoplastic media. It also presents an advanced FD time-domain method for efficient numerical simulations of earthquake ground motion in realistic complex models of local surface sedimentary structures. Accompanied by a suite of online resources to help put the theory into practice, this is a vital resource for professionals and academic researchers using numerical seismological techniques, and graduate students in earthquake seismology, computational and numerical modelling, and applied mathematics.